Early pharmacy and medicine in Pittsburgh compared favorably with early developments in pharmacy and medicine in other parts of our country.
The men who cared for the sick were usually physicians who had migrated to this part of the world. Many of these men acted as preceptors to prospective doctors and so a sort of health program was instituted; it was the best that could be had at the time and under existing circumstances.
During the period of colonization many drugs and chemicals were imported, chiefly from Europe. As time passed, imports ran out and new supplies were available only as new shipments, slow to arrive, were received.
Imported products used as medicinals, chemical in character, and crude plant drugs, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds were grossly adulterated. These conditions, among others, resulted in the introduction of drugs indigenous to America, many of which had been used by the Indians.
Standards governing the purity of drugs did not exist in America. Acceptable formulas for the manufacture of preparations for administration to the sick were rather limited in number. Many of the crude plant drugs were administered in the form of brews, teas, and the like.
Some of the early apothecaries were fortunate to have the London Pharmacopoeia, first published in 1618, or the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, published in 1699. Although other pharmacopoeias were published in Europe, these two were used most widely.
The need in the colonies for some type of formulary became apparent early and resulted in the publication of a work in 1776 which is generally recognized as the first pharmacopoeia in America. This was called the 'Lititz Pharmacopoeia." It was written in Latin and bears the following title with explanatory material:
Pharmacopoeia Simpliciorum et Efficaciorum, in usum nosocomii militaris, ad pertinentis; hodiernae nostrae inopiae rerumque augustiis, feroci hostium saevitiae, belloque crude ii ex inopinato patriae nostrae illato debitis, maxime accommodata.
Translated this means:
Pharmacopoeia of simple but nevertheless efficacious remedies for the use of the military hospital, belonging to the army of the United States of America. Especially adapted to our present poverty and straightened circumstances, due to the ferocious inhumanity of the enemy, and cruel war unexpectedly brought upon our fatherland.
Early settlers realized that the "point" at the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers which formed the Ohio was a strategic area opening to the west. This led to the rapid development and expansion of what is known today as "Pittsburgh and its Environs." The inhabitants of this rapidly growing region were fortunate in having physicians available to care for their ills, and druggists and apothecaries to compound and dispense their medicines.
Adulteration of imported drugs and the sale of Quack Nostrums on public thoroughfares in this area was widespread in the early decades. It is little wonder then that as early as 1871 the druggists and apothecaries of Western Pennsylvania organized in an effort to promote legislation and to protect each other from the evils of adulteration and quackery. The first recorded meeting, which was in the nature of a reception tendered to the delegates who had returned from the American Pharmaceutical Association Convention held at St. Louis, was held on September 7, 1871, at the Monongahela House, at Smithfield and Water Streets. Among the visitors present were Professors Edward Parrish and John M. Maisch of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and Mr. John F. Hancock, a druggist of Baltimore. There is no doubt that the local group received much encouragement from these enthusiastic and well-known visitors, because before the meeting was adjourned Mr. Newton McClarran and Mr. Joseph Abel were elected president and secretary, pro tem, respectively.
A second meeting was held on the next evening, September 8, 1871, at the St. Clair Hotel, Penn Avenue and Sixth Street. The temporary officers were retained and, in order to complete the organization, Mr. William H. Brill and Mr. Alfred J. Rankin were elected vice-president and treasurer, respectively, and a permanent organization was constituted, to be known as The Pharmaceutical Association of Allegheny County.
Two other meetings were held-one on September 20, 1871 at the St. Clair Hotel, and the second on September 28, 1871, at the University building. At the second meeting officers of the organization were elected: Henry B. Schwartz, president; Newton McClarran, 1st vice-president; Harrison S. Lutz, 2nd vice-president; Joseph Abel, recording secretary; Alfred J. Rankin, corresponding secretary; and William H. Brill, treasurer. A Constitution and By-Laws and a Code of Ethics were adopted (see Appendix V, Document A). This organization, however, remained active only until September 1872.
By 1878 Pittsburgh had grown from a population of approximately 9,000 at the time of its incorporation as a city on March 18, 1816, to 156,389. Factories, foundries, mills, and glass-works were the core of the industrial development. A free public school system had been adopted and education at the higher level was obtainable in institutions of higher learning, among which was the Western University of Pennsylvania. Wholesale houses and retail stores handling all sorts of merchandise were conveniently located and banks had been established. A hospital (The Mercy Hospital) had been founded in 1847 and a Chamber of Commerce was incorporated, July 8, 1878. For amusements one could attend the Pittsburgh Opera House, 90 Fifth Avenue; the Fifth Avenue Lyceum, 92 Fifth Avenue; the Concert Garden, 70 Diamond Street; or Library Hall on Penn Avenue near Sixth Street. Among the early clubs were the Pittsburgh Club at 259 Penn Avenue and the Duquesne Club at 19 Sixth Avenue. These all point to a growing society and with it a need for educational development.
In 1878, two regulations restricting the sale of quack nostrums in public thoroughfares were in operation in this region, an ordinance having been passed by the cities on opposite sides of the Allegheny River, Pittsburgh and Allegheny.
The druggists and apothecaries in the two cities and surrounding communities who had been working closely with the doctors to supply the health needs of the people, now felt that their services must be improved and that the only way to accomplish this was to establish a school for the training of those who would compound prescriptions. Announcements, such as the following which appeared in the local paper, were one indication for the need of better training.
Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette
January 5, 1878
Elegant Pharmaceutical Preparations
Prepared by Wyeth and Bro.
Pure Gelatin coated Pills and granules, by Keasbey and Mattison; Granular Effervescent Salts; Kissingen, Vichy, Carlsbad, Seltzer, Magnesia, Aperient & c., by Bishop, London. A large and fresh stock of above goods received and for sale by J.T. McKennan, Druggist 85 Market Street, corner Diamond
Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette
February 22, 1878
Another large invoice received from No. 1 to No. 35. For sale by the dozen or single bottle. Sent by mail on receipt of price. Descriptive books furnished free upon application by the agent.
J. T. McKennan, Druggist
85 Market Street, corner Diamond
The Pittsburgh Evening Chronicle reported on July 2, 1878 that on the previous evening a meeting of the druggists of Pittsburgh and Allegheny was held in the Western University Laboratory for the purpose of organizing a College of Pharmacy in Western Pennsylvania. Mr. James B. Cherry was made chairman and Mr. Louis Hauch secretary of the meeting. Messrs. Newton M. McClarran, Henry Schmidt, Louis Emanuel, Louis Hauch, W. S. Beach, and M. J. McGann made short speeches in favor of establishing in Pittsburgh a School of Pharmacy.
The discussion which followed offered opinions pro and con. One objection was raised that the new school would "grind out incompetent druggists." This was countered with the statement "that at present druggists may be made out of boys who serve a short apprenticeship at bottle washing."
Much groundwork had to be done. A place in which to have classes was of immediate concern.
The same newspaper also reported that a second meeting was held on July 8, 1878. Mr. Cherry appointed a committee to report on a permanent organization for the proposed College of Pharmacy.
The first officially recorded meeting was held on July 15, 1878. The opening paragraph of the minutes reads as follows:
Pittsburgh July 15, 1878
At a meeting of the Druggists of Pittsburgh and vicinity held in the Western University room #2 James B. Cherry in the chair the following business was transacted. The committee appointed at a previous meeting to report on a permanent organization for the proposed College of Pharmacy reported the following list of Officers and Trustees which was adopted.
President: George A. Kelly
Vice-President: Dr. Levi H. Harris
Recording Secretary: James B. Cherry
Corresponding Secretary: Joseph Kimmel
Treasurer: Dr. Samuel S. Holland
Curator: Perry M. Gleim
|Board of Trustees|
|James Kerr, Jr.||G.Eisenbeis|
|James B. Cherry||Louis Rott (replaced by B. L. Fahnstock)|
|Fred H. Eggers|
|A. C. Robertson||Joseph Henderson|
|Wm. H. Brill||Louis Emanuel|
|Charles Schwarm||D. C. Thompson|
|Henry Schmidt||B. J. Stenger|
|Fred G. Seitz||John T. McKennan|
|J. B. Hill||P. Walters, Jr.|
|F. R. Fleck||A. J. Rankin|
|Joseph Abel||William G. Schirmer|
On motion a committee of three, composed of Messrs. Brill, Cherry, and McClarran, was appointed to confer with the Executive Committee of the Western University to ascertain what arrangements could be made with them in regard to the starting of the college.
There was some question in the minds of those present whether a college of pharmacy should be a part of the University or should be an independent school, and after much discussion, Dr. Donnelly offered the following resolution, which was adopted:
"Resolved-That the committee on conference be instructed to confine themselves to renting of rooms and employment of a Prof. of Chemistry."
It was indeed due to a mutual friend, Professor Francis C. Phillips, that the organization was able to make amicable arrangements with the University. Professor Phillips presented the following letter to the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of the Western University of Pennsylvania:
To the Executive Committee of Board of Trustees of the Western University of Pennsylvania
In order to the proposed establishment of a College of Pharmacy in connection with the Western University, I would respectfully submit to your consideration the following offer:
I will volunteer my services for the First Session of the New College of Pharmacy in carrying Out the lecture course in Chemistry as proposed by the Trustees of that Institution to begin October 2, 1878, and will apply the fees received by me from students of this first course, in providing apparatus, books and chemicals for illustration of the lectures and for use in the Chemical laboratory provided:
- That the Trustees of the University will appropriate funds sufficient to purchase the following apparatus:
The pieces of apparatus here enumerated are important and necessary aids to instruction in Natural Sciences, and would form a valuable and much needed addition to our Cabinet. This apparatus to become the property of the University Chemical laboratory.
- 0ne spectroscope (Browning's) price $140.00
- 0ne microscope (Zeutmayer's) price 135.00
- One oxy-hydrogen lantern (Zeutmayer's) price 150.00
- Total Cost $425.00
- That the sum agreed upon to be paid by the Druggists' Association to the University, namely, three hundred dollars after deducting the sum of forty (40) dollars for water and gas required to be used for the lectures, and sixty (60) dollars to be paid to the College Janitors for taking complete charge of lecture room during the course, be paid to me to be expended on apparatus and materials for the University laboratory.
- That the charge of the class in Botany be given to another instructor; and that provision be made for this by the University in view of the greatly increased labors, which will necessarily evolve upon me in carrying Out the terms of this agreement.
- That in case the Trustees of the University accept this proposition, the agreement is to terminate absolutely at the close of the first session of the New College.
Francis C. Phillips
Needless to say, the University accepted Dr. Phillips' proposition and the College of Pharmacy had the use of room #2 for the purpose of holding three courses of forty lectures each (Pharmacy, Chemistry, and Botany). (see Appendix V, Document C)
Weekly meetings were held from July 15, 1878, until September 23, 1878, inclusive. Committees were appointed to prepare a constitution and by-laws to govern the organization. These were prepared, approved and adopted. A design for a seal was presented and also adopted.
Chairman George A. Kelly reported the receipt of a communication under date of August 5, 1878. As follows:
170 Penna. Avenue
George A. Kelly, Esq.
Pres. of Pharmaceutical Association
At a meeting of the Allegheny Co. Medical Society, held July i6, 1878, the following resolution was passed.
‘Resolved, That this Society approve of the efforts of the Druggists of this County to establish a College of Pharmacy.'
The Secretary was directed to notify the officers of the Druggists Association of this action of the society.
/s/ E. S. Riggs, Sec.
Mr. B. L. Fahnestock became chairman of the Board of Trustees, nominated successor to Mr. Kelly Aug. 26; took chair at September 2, 1878, meeting.
At a meeting held on September 16, 1878 the petition for a charter was presented in its final form and signed by the members applying for it. The petition was presented to the courts on September 21, 1878, and the charter was granted on September 23, 1878. (see Appendix V, Document D) The granting of the charter was subsequently reported to the members of the corporation at a meeting held late the same day.
|E. S. Ward||David Davis, Jr.|
|3rd Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||634 Prebble Ave., Allegheny, Pa.|
|John T. McKennan||W. W. Sawhill|
|85 Market St., Pittsburgh, Pa.||225 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Peter Weber||R. D. Bunt|
|76 Wylie Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||Oakland, 5th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|John B. Hill||A. Meckelburg|
|144 Wylie Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||Chestnut St., Allegheny, Pa.|
|Joseph Stokely||Charles Schwarm|
|341 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||1805 Carson St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|M. J. McGann||Frederick H. Eggers|
|42 Wylie Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||172 Ohio St., Allegheny, Pa.|
|Joseph Kimmell||J. G. Templeton|
|cor. Penn and 9th St., Pittsburgh, Pa.||299 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Louis Steitz||172 Smithfield St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|157 Pennsylvania Ave., Allegheny, Pa.||Charles F. Nourse|
|Wylie Ave. and Arthur St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|76 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa.||Henry Wurzel, Jr.|
|F. A. Dittler||5th Ave. and Pride St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|347 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Charles Hauch||F. W. Walker|
|91 Sixth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||New Brighton, Pa.|
|Thomas McHenry||B. G. Dosch|
|18 Western Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||Allegheny, Pa.|
|Gotleib Eisenbeis||W. S. Simpson, M.D.|
|113 Federal St., Pittsburgh, Pa.||109 Wylie Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Joseph Henderson||J. L. Swearer|
|Seventh Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||Walnut St., 36th Ward, Pittsburgh|
The following named persons individually signed the document organizing themselves into an association to be known as The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy. We the undersigned do hereby organize ourselves into an association to be known as The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy.
|George A. Kelly||Louis Emanuel|
|Newton McClarran||cor. Second Ave. and Grant St.,|
|6th Ave., Smithfield St.,.||Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Pittsburgh, Pa||W. H. Brill|
|Dan C. Hamilton||cor. Fifth and Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|cor. Beaver Ave. and Locust Alley,|
|Allegheny, Pa.||W. S. Beach|
|Levi H. Harris||676 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|341 Liberty St., cor. Tenth, Pittsburgh, Pa||D. C. Thompson|
|Joseph Abel||195 Liberty St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|5th and Grant, Pittsburgh, Pa.||F. R. Fleck|
|William G. Schirmer||171 Beaver Ave., Allegheny, Pa.|
|3rd Ave. and Smithfield St, Pittsburgh, Pa||C. H. Beach|
|32 Ward St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Louis Hauch||Abner S. Bender|
|233 Centre Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.||341 Liberty St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Perry M. Gleim||S. S. Holland|
|213 Rebecca St., Allegheny, Pa.||cor. Smithfield and Liberty St.,|
|S. Henry Stevens||Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Centre St., Shadyside, Pittsburgh, Pa.||Joseph M. Kinney|
|341 Liberty St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|James B. Cherry||E. Donnelly, M.D.|
|cor. 4th and Ferry St., Pittsburgh,||131 Grant St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|James Kerr, Jr.||L. C. Castner|
|56 Smithfield St., Pittsburgh, Pa.||Penn Ave., E.E., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|A. C. Robertson||A. H. Wilson|
|cor. First Ave. and Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa||cor. Penn and Frankstown, Pittsburgh, Pa|
|J. B. Lindsay||A. K. Henderson|
|cor. First Ave. and Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa||Frankstown Ave., E.E., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Emerson L. Duff||B. F. Wickersham|
|cor. Main and Adx., 36th Ward,||cor. Penn Ave. and Station St., E.E.,|
|Pittsburgh, Pa.||Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|A. Armor||S. N. Wickersham|
|Taylor Ave., cor. Monterey St.,||cor. Penn Ave. and Station St., E.E.,|
|Allegheny, Pa.||Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Jas. M. Parke||D. W. Hershberger|
|cor. Palo Alto St. and Taylor Ave.,||Liberty Block, E.E., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Allegheny, Pa.||R. M. McClarran|
|J. P. Urben||Liberty Block, E.E., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|277 Federal St., Allegheny, Pa.||B. J. Stenger|
|Joseph Park||1601 Carson St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|cor. Federal St. and North Ave.,||Henry Schmidt|
|Allegheny, Pa.||4016 Butler St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Samuel Stewart||Fred G. Seitz|
|113 Federal St., Allegheny, Pa.||711 Penn Ave Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Emil G. Stucky||John V. Stephenson|
|172 Ohio St., Allegheny, Pa.||59 Federal St., Allegheny, Pa.|
|Anton Glamser||Edward W. Over|
|236 Ohio St., Pittsburgh, Pa.||cor. Penn Ave. and Main St.,|
|G. W. Schmidt||Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|c/o A. Koch, S. S., Pittsburgh, Pa.||C. F. Caidwell|
|A. Klotz||cor. 4Sth and Butler St., Pittsburgh, Pa|
|76 East St., Allegheny, Pa.|
|W. W. Davis||Joseph Ehrstein|
|77 Ohio St., Allegheny, Pa.||1035 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|A. J. Kaercher||Edward Spring|
|59 Federal St., Allegheny, Pa.||869 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Charles Eble||Theodore W. D. Hieber|
|Penn Ave., E.E., Pittsburgh, Pa.||487 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|John Cowley||B. L. Fahnestock|
|P.0. Box 520, Pittsburgh, Pa.||76 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Alfred J. Rankin||J. E. Hunter|
|45 6th St., Pittsburgh, Pa.||Turtle Creek, Pa.|
|George W. Pyatt||E. Holden|
|Sewickley, Pa.||63 Federal St., Allegheny, Pa.|
|George E. Foster||Joseph Fleming|
|Wash. Ave. and Fremont,||84 Market St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|Allegheny, Pa.||Benj. S. Fahnestock|
|L. M. Hamilton||76 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|231 Franklin St., Allegheny, Pa.||Mansfield Foster|
|288 Beaver Ave., Allegheny, Pa.||Wylie and Washington St.,|
|Ralph D. Means||Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|207 North Ave., cor. Federal St.,||Theodore Doerflinger|
|Allegheny, Pa.||Wylie and Congress St., Pittsburgh, Pa.|
|A. B. Urben|
|Webster Ave., cor. Roberts St.,||Theodore Becker|
|Pittsburgh, Pa.||Federal St., Allegheny, Pa.|
|A. W. Kreidle||Dr. Reiter|
|J. S. Boyd|
|Tarentum, Pa.||Prof. Phillips|
|G. W. Mays||H. P. Schwartz|
|New Castle, Pa.||Allegheny, Pa.|
The first faculty to inaugurate the course of instruction consisted of Dr. Francis C. Phillips, professor of chemistry; Dr. W. C. Reiter, professor of materia medica and botany; and Dr. S. Henry Stevens, professor of pharmacy. The opening night was set for October 1, 1878. One thousand invitations were sent to the physicians and druggists of this region. This momentous affair was held in the Western University of Pennsylvania building on Diamond Street. There was a very dignified program, which included three short addresses, one by the President of the College, George A. Kelly; another by W. D. Moore; and one by Dr. George Woods, Chancellor of the University. Music, too, was included in this program. Robinson's band played several selections, and a quartette, composed of Messrs. Cain, Ross, Rinehart, and Balph, sang several numbers. It was indeed a grand opening and promised much for the future.
Twenty students enrolled for the first class in October. There were no prerequisites for registration except a sincere desire to gain additional knowledge to advance one's self in a chosen profession.
It was difficult for many of these students to attend, because they worked during the day and classes were held only in the evenings. There were three courses of lectures, which were held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Work in the laboratory was offered, but it was not obligatory. The first schedule of classes was as follows:
|The First Schedule of Classes|
|Monday||Materia Medica and Botany||7 1/2 to 8 1/2|
|Chemistry||8 1/2 to 9 1/2|
|Wednesday||Pharmacy||7 1/2 to 8 1/2|
|Chemistry||8 1/2 to 9 1/2|
|Friday||Materia Medica and Botany||7 1/2 to 8 1/2|
|Pharmacy||8 1/2 to 9 1/2|
Of the twenty students, only eleven completed the course and graduated on March 11, 1880. One glimpse at the schedule shows why so many beginners did not complete the course. A good additional reason was that attendance was only for one's own betterment; graduation from a college or school of pharmacy was not a prerequisite to practice pharmacy.
From the beginning, as listed in the prospectus put out each year by the College, one of the requirements for graduation from the College was four years of practical experience.
In the meantime other events were transpiring. The Pennsylvania State Pharmaceutical Association held its second annual meeting in Pittsburgh. The visiting members were guests of the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy. They were entertained by trips to Armstrong Cork Works; to the Edgar Thomson Steel Works; and also by a ride on a steamboat. A banquet was also held at the 7th Avenue Hotel to honor the delegates and guests. This occasion not only increased the enthusiasm of the members of the College Corporation, but also created a greater desire on their part for further accomplishments.
In response to an invitation issued early in February 1878, a number of druggists from different parts of the State, met together in Harrisburg, and organized the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. A Constitution and By-Laws were adopted, and the following officers elected: President, Charles A. Heinitsh, Lancaster; Vice-President, George W. Kennedy, Pottsville, and Dr. W. H. Egle, Harrisburg; Treasurer, J. L. Lemberger, Lebanon; Secretary, J. A. Miller, Harrisburg; Assistant Secretary, J. H. Stein, Reading; Executive Committee, C. H. Cressler, Chambersburg, J. A. Meyers, Columbia, and W. F. Horn, Carlisle. The object of the Association, as stated in the Constitution, "shall be to unite the educated and reputable Pharmaceutists and Druggists of the State to improve the art and science of pharmacy; and to restrict the dispensing and sale of medicines to regularly educated druggists." It is hoped that the druggists generally throughout the State will fill up and send in the blank applications for membership, that have been sent to them by the Secretary. The first annual meeting will be held in Reading on Tuesday, June 11, 1878 at 10:30 o'clock AM.
Through the patience and persistent efforts of such men as George A Kelly, a member of the firm of George A. Kelly Co., who was president of the College from the beginning until 1889, the college progressed rapidly. Mr. Kelly made substantial donations to assist the School in getting a start. He also gave a Troemner Balance as a prize to be awarded to the junior student making the best percentage. Mr. Kelly was also interested in many other organizations, to which he contributed generously, both with his time and money. It was through his efforts that many reforms were brought about in the prisons of the State, for it was his clear judgment and deep convictions that led him to advocate education and training in useful occupations for the prisoners. He was a member of the Duquesne Club. He also belonged to the Art Society of Pittsburgh, which promoted better knowledge of paintings, music, literature, and science – in fact, all things that contributed to aesthetic culture. He was a leader, both in Pittsburgh business circles and in philanthropy, and it is indeed interesting that the firm which bears his name is reputed to be the oldest wholesale drug house still doing business west of the Allegheny Mountains.
One of Mr. Kelly's close associates, Mr. B. L. Fahnestock, owned one of the largest wholesale drug houses in America. It is curious to note, in a study of these two men, that, in the early days of the drug trade, the parent house was established in Pittsburgh, and there were branches in New York and Philadelphia. This was primarily because Pittsburgh was then near the frontier, and many gatherers of medicinal drugs and herbs brought their stock there for distribution.
Another outstanding founder of the College was Louis Emanuel, who was also one of the signers of the charter. He not only conducted his own pharmacy, but also served as Professor of Chemistry for a short time. He was a member of the Pennsylvania State Board of Pharmacy, and its president or chairman for twenty-seven years. He procured for the College a collection- "The Pharmacy Laws" from the various states. Dr. Emanuel was continuously connected with the College in an active capacity until his death on April 8, 1941.
Upon these men and many others the College depended for counsel and assistance in the early years.
The first year ended successfully, and much had been accomplished, but the college now was faced with the problem of finding a new location for the ensuing year. Therefore, on May 6, 1879, a special committee, consisting of Henry Schmidt, James B. Cherry, Joseph Abel, Joseph Henderson, and William G. Schirmer, was appointed to obtain new quarters. They reported in favor of rooms over the Peoples Savings Bank, at 81 Fourth Avenue, and it was consequently at this location that the next sessions were held. The college was now confronted with a real problem, for they needed specimens and apparatus for classroom and laboratory instruction. This was partially solved by gifts of specimens of chemicals and crude drugs and apparatus which were contributed by McKesson and Robbins, William R. Warner & Co., Burrough Bros., Henry Troemner, Keasby & Mattison, W. H. Heritage, Demmler Bros., W. G. Price and Co., and Powers and Weightman. A Remington still was presented by Professor Joseph P. Remington. The purchase of the necessary additional chemicals and apparatus, as judged by Professor De Brunner, required a minimum of $300.00. These came as donations from Messrs. George A. Kelly, William G. Schirmer, James Kerr, Jr., Samuel S. Holland, Henry Schmidt, Joseph Henderson & Bro., Hostetter & Smith, Newton McClarran, Louis Brehm, Mackeown Thompson & Co., Albert H. Wilson, Joseph Kimmel, and Simon Johnson. Professor John M. Maisch contributed 22 volumes of the back numbers of the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association to the library.
The professors for 1879-1880 were: W. C. Reiter, M.D.: professor of materia medica and botany; S. H. Stevens, M.D.: professor of practical pharmacy; H. G. DeBrunner: professor of chemistry. (see Appendix II)
Thus the second year began. Seating accommodations consisted of the old-fashioned type settee, which accommodated four students each. For writing space there was attached to the back of each settee a nine inch board. For illumination, gas lights were used. The chief mode of transportation was by means of horse and buggy and it has been stated that the students on the way to their classes often stopped to take the teachers with them.
The members of the College Corporation were interested not only in the progress and development of the college, but in pharmaceutical affairs nationally. On September 2, 1879, five members of this group; namely, F. W. Walker, Joseph Kimmel, Joseph Henderson, Louis Emanuel, and James B. Cherry were elected delegates to the American Pharmaceutical Association convention held in Indianapolis in September 1879.
Also during this era, many druggists in Pennsylvania were having difficulty with a Patent Medicine Tax. James B. Cherry, Louis Emanuel, (Sic) Maits, Joseph Abel, John B. Hill, Mansfield Foster, Arnold Koch, Charles Schwarm, John T. McKennan, A. F. Sandhill, G. R. Splane, and Theodore Doerflinger were a few of those concerned with a just solution of this problem and gave of their time and energy to this end. In the meantime these men were struggling with the "lusty little one" as stated by Mr. W. D. Moore. (see Appendix V, Document E).
Faculty appointments were made from year to year and so it became apparent in the early summer that a teaching staff for the next year must be appointed. On June 8, 1880, the following were engaged for the next school year: Hugo Blanck, Ph.D., professor of chemistry; G. W. Allyn, M.D., professor of materia medica and botany; S. Henry Stevens, M.D., professor of pharmacy.
A general invitation was again sent to the members of the College Corporation, and to the doctors and druggists of Allegheny County to attend the opening lecture of the third term of the College, which began on Monday, October 3, 1880, at 8 p.m., in the College Hall. Professor Allyn delivered the opening lecture and the President of the College and the Chairman of the Board of Trustees each likewise addressed the meeting.
Shortly after the term opened, the pharmacists and physicians who were vitally interested in pharmacy in Western Pennsylvania called a special meeting which was held in the College Hall on January 18, 1881. The purpose of this meeting was to consider a bill for regulating the practice of pharmacy in Allegheny County. A bill was subsequently drawn up and presented to the Pennsylvania legislature by Representative McClarran. A petition was also drawn up by the members of the group from Allegheny County to urge the passage of this bill. The bill, House Bill no. 145, 1881, introduced by Robert M. McClarran (who was a druggist) was entitled An Act, Regulating the Practice of Pharmacy in the County of Allegheny. When this bill was up for second reading, Mr. McClarran moved that further consideration of the same be indefinitely postponed. The bill did not become a law. The reason for Mr. McClarran's action was that these men had learned that the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association was presenting a similar piece of legislation affecting all pharmacists in the state and they felt that they should cooperate on a statewide level rather than on a county basis.
Thus we see that the members of the College Corporation were interested in the improvement of pharmacy in all of its phases. George A. Kelly, Joseph Kimmel, and J. McElroy, Jr. M D were appointed to act in conjunction with the Pennsylvania State Pharmaceutical Association in matters relative to State Pharmacy Laws. These groups not only worked diligently to improve pharmacy, but they also made every effort to influence others who were eligible to join with them in this pursuit.
Before the next school year opened, the College Corporation lost one of its active colleagues, Joseph Henderson. The following resolution was presented and spread on the minutes: "In the death of our Colleague the young institution has lost a good friend who was ever ready to accept cheerfully every duty imposed upon him and who liberally aided in the support and advancement of our school."
At the commencement in the Spring of 1882 only a few qualified for graduation: W. F. Walker, G. P. Stauver, J. H. Schmidt, T. B. Rogers, and William B. Means.
However, the spirit of the members of the Corporation never faltered, for they sent two delegates to the next convention of the American Pharmaceutical Association: Louis Emanuel and Dr. S. Henry Stevens. This meeting was held at Niagara Falls in September 1882.
In the fifth year of the College, to aid the financial condition of the College, rooms were rented to the Pittsburgh Microscopical Society and to the Rudolph Fishing Club at $2 per night. (1882)
It now became apparent that there was a need for an Alumni Society, and Messrs. Schirmer, Emanuel and Cherry were to assist the graduates in organizing such a group. This group gave able assistance each year to commencement activities as well as social affairs.
It was in March of 1883 that Mr. Robertson, on behalf of the George A. Kelly Company, gave a Troemner Balance to the College to be awarded to the student in the junior class having the highest percentage. At the same time, Dr. Stevens, on behalf of the citizens of Shadyside, gave a microscope to be awarded to the student in the senior class making the highest average. At the end of the term, Mr. John T. Reed, of the graduating class, received the microscope, and Mr. Julius A. Koch, of the junior class, the prescription scale.
Nearly all pharmacy colleges had now adopted the plan of giving separate lectures to the junior and senior classes. This was definitely a step forward, for it enabled the students to obtain a better knowledge of the profession, because it permitted a greater range of subjects to be presented to the classes and it required a closer personal application on the part of the student.
The following schedule was presented by Mr. William G. Schirmer for the 1883-84 session:
|1883-84 Session Schedule|
|Chemistry||Chemistry||Pharmacy||Pharmacy||Mat. Med||Mat. Med.|
|Pharmacy||Pharmacy||Chemistry||Chemistry||Mat. Med.||Mat. Med.|
|7:30 P.M.||7:30||7:30||7:30||7:30||3-5 PM.|
The members of the Corporation, along with their other duties, again turned to legislation. They expressed the idea that each second and third class city should present a bill to regulate pharmacy in their locality, and that such bills should be patterned after the one proposed for Allegheny County. However, it was not until later that the first Pennsylvania Pharmacy Law was enacted. (see Appendix V, Document F)
Just about this time, the Secretary of the Board of Trustees was instructed to invite the members of the faculty to attend Board meetings to make known their needs, so that the new supplies and apparatus could, if financially possible, be procured more advantageously. This action was necessary, for the last report indicated only a small residue in the treasury.
However, some kind individuals or firms always came to the aid of the College. This year the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works of St. Louis sent innumerable specimens of chemicals.
Now students expressed interest in doing laboratory work during the summertime. Professor Blanck, therefore, asked permission to use the laboratory for students during the normal vacation period. This was granted. An arrangement was made whereby Professor Blanck received two-thirds and the College one-third of what was collected from the students, or $15 for the first month; $12 for the second month; and $10 for every month thereafter. Professor Blanck, however, paid the janitor out of his earnings. This was possible for him to do, for he drew as his salary $528.66 this year and the other professors received only $300 each. It was the custom then that the professors received their pay directly from the payments made to them by the students.
At the fifth commencement – 1884 – nine men graduated with the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy. This group included Julius A. Koch, who became dean in 1891 and functioned actively in this capacity until his retirement in 1932.
It is interesting to observe that some of the pharmacies of this era were owned by physicians: i.e., Dr. Stoy on Third Avenue; Dr. Scherer, 174 Smithfield Street; and Dr. H. B. Orr, Second Avenue near Smithfield Street. Dr. Orr had a regular prescription room, but filled only his own prescriptions. Many of the drugs used then are still in use today. Some of the vegetable drugs of particular interest were Senna Leaves, Rhubarb, Camphor, Opium and Quinine. The chemical list included such drugs as Borax, Alum, Rochelle Salt, as well as Epsom and Glauber Salt. Many plasters were spread since only a few were available on the market. The so-called "Patent Medicines" included such preparations as Humbold's Buchu, Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery and Ayers Sarsaparilla, etc. Fellows Hypophosphites was one of the first so-called "Specialties" to be prescribed by the physicians. Cascara was a new drug in 1888. It is interesting to observe that Calomel was prescribed extensively in 10 to 15 gram doses.
It was the abuse of the drug trade that kept all of the professionally minded pharmacists alert to the fact that something had to be done to regulate what citizens themselves would not regulate. After many unsuccessful attempts the first pharmacy law for the state of Pennsylvania was passed May 24, 1887.
The curriculum increased in course content and as previously indicated, many were already taking the laboratory courses. It became necessary, therefore, to look for larger quarters. A suggestion made by Professor Blanck in May 1884 brought about the transfer of the College to the Hostetter Building, Ferry Street and First Avenue. It now became necessary to furnish the enlarged quarters. The last report of the treasurer indicated that there was on hand about $100 in cash. While this condition created a dilemma, the members of the corporation never wavered in their determination to go forward. A committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions for refitting the lecture rooms and laboratory. Advertisements were run in the Druggists Circular for three months. The committee was successful in this objective and was then discharged. Mr. William Thaw was one of the patrons to the extent of $100, and Dr. Reiter also made a cash donation. Mr. James Kerr presented proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, and Mr. Eggers repaired the blackboards.
In addition to the donations received, the income of the College was supplemented by renting a lecture room to the Gynaecological Society for a meeting once a month at a fee of $3 and to the Pittsburgh Microscopical Society for their meetings. (1884) Dr. Hostetter agreed to furnish the heat in the building for the winter. John A. Schafer offered to assist the College by collecting an herbarium.
The Board of Trustees, on April 15, 1885, adopted the regulation that any candidate for a degree, not having three years and three months of practical experience, of which he must submit proof, need not appear for examinations. Each candidate for graduation was required to present to the faculty and examining committee a thesis and proof of his practical experience in addition to having successfully completed his course. He also had to be approved by the examining committee and faculty relative to his personal qualifications to conduct the business of an apothecary in a reputable and scientific manner.
In the meantime, the seventh year of instruction was completed, the final examinations were over, and another class was ready for graduation. As soon as a school year was ended, arrangements were made immediately for the next session and this year was no exception.
Professor Blanck was to be retained as professor of chemistry, and Professor S. Henry Stevens as professor of pharmacy. There was a change, however, in materia medica and botany. Dr. Adolph Koenig, who was an outstanding practitioner of medicine, was elected to this position. Dr. Koenig was assisted by John A. Shafer. It is said that Mr. Shafer often appeared in the classroom wearing high leather boots which were covered with mud, acquired while crossing fields looking for specimens which he used in his classes.
Because the treasury again was depleted, Professor Blanck, advertised the opening of the next school year - 1885-86 - at his own expense.
Dr. John Dickson, Sr., presented the college with a valuable gift of Geological, Entomological, and Botanical specimens for which he was given a vote of thanks.
School was opened, and the next change came when the students took their final examinations. Each student was assigned an envelope upon which appeared a word which was the student's "synonym" for examination purposes. No student was eligible for examination unless he had presented his thesis and certificate of apprenticeship prior to February 15. On each answer sheet the student used he wrote his name, age, city, and permanent address and also the name of his preceptor. This card was then returned to the secretary of the examining committee. The papers were examined by the faculty and some members of the College Corporation; was assigned to each person for grading. After the papers were graded, two different members totaled the figures and placed them to the list of synonyms. Just before the, grading was completed two members of the Board and one member of the faculty opened the envelopes and made a list of the synonyms with the student's name opposite. The passing average was to be 60%.
An active committee on membership was making every effort to increase the number of individuals in the College Corporation.
The library committee was another active body. The library was given two volumes on chemistry by Mr. F. W. Eggers and in a report of the library committee it was indicated that there were 50 volumes in the library, some of them, however, were not strictly pharmaceutical. Every publisher was asked for donations of books.
For some time now a pharmacy laboratory had been under consideration and at last, through the kind help of Dr. Hostetter in making the rental for an additional room only $25 more a year, such a proposition was put into effect on April 1, 1887. It was agreed to start a class in pharmacy laboratory and to use the chemical laboratory until the new laboratory was ready. The fees charged were to be the same as for Chemistry.
The first month only one student elected pharmacy laboratory, the second month there were two, and gradually this number increased.
On March 13, 1888, Dr. Emanuel promoted the idea that laboratory practice in both pharmacy and chemistry be made obligatory for at least two months, and that the student be given the option of taking it either the first or the second year. Such a resolution was unanimously adopted by the Board of Trustees on April 2, 1888.
It was again through the assistance of many friends of the College, among whom were George A. Kelly, who was paid for merchandise by note and William Thaw, that necessary expenditures were met for needed improvements.
By act of legislature, approved May 24, 1887, a state pharmaceutical examining board was constituted. The governor, James A. Beaver, appointed the following as members of this Board: Alonzo Robbins, Philadelphia; Frederick H. Eggers, Allegheny City; Harry B. Cochran, Lancaster; A. B. Burns, Montrose; H. A. Taffel, Philadelphia. Later the official title of the examining board became the Pennsylvania Board of Pharmacy and now it is the State Board of Pharmacy.
Mr. F. H. Eggers was now treasurer of this Board. In spite of the great need for money, the College offered to the State Pharmacy Board two rooms for examination purposes. This offer was accepted. The Board of Trustees then placed at the State Board's disposal space whenever it was needed, and this policy is still in operation.
The need for more commodious quarters was now very evident and the members of the Corporation began to think in terms of a new building of its own. A committee, consisting of F. H. Eggers, S. S. Holland, and C. H. Beach, was appointed to look into the ways and means by which this could be accomplished.
The friendly interest of the members of the medical profession was evidenced by the fact that Drs. John M. Duff, James McCann, Robert B. Mowry, and Dr. Fulton rendered their services at graduation exercises by giving the principal commencement addresses. It is also recorded that Dr. W. S. Simpson gave a lecture on the metric system to the Board of Trustees.
Increasing interest on the part of large drug companies is shown by the fact that Lehn and Fink and Parke, Davis & Co. each sent large donations of crude drugs. It was through such cooperation that the College was able to progress.
On January 13, 1891, the College was notified that they must vacate their quarters before April 1, 1891. A committee consisting of Mr. F. H. Eggers, Dr. Louis Emanuel, and Professor Stevens was appointed to confer with the Trustees of The Medical College, the Free Dispensary, and the Curry Institute, or any other institution with which they might be able to make arrangements for the accommodation of the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy. After looking into several possibilities, together with much planning, the College was able to rent quarters at the Schmertz Building, corner of Water and Market Streets, which were subsequently occupied by the College for the fall classes of the 1891-92 session. The Allegheny County Druggists Association rented a room for their regular meetings at $25 per annum.
The new quarters were made possible only because Professors Koenig, Blanck, and Koch each agreed to pay a portion of the rent each year until the College was financially able to pay the full amount.
And so, the first decade of pharmacy education in Pittsburgh ended with promise of a greater future.