The year of 1891 was epoch making in the history of the institution and characterized by a marked change in its policy.
At a meeting of the Board of Trustees held on April 21, 1891, Julius A. Koch became the first dean of the College and was also elected Professor of Pharmacy. At this same meeting Dr. Adolph Koenig and Dr. Hugo Blanck were re-elected as Professor of Materia Medica and Botany and Professor of Chemistry respectively.
During a personal interview Dr. Koch said that he made the following statement, "I will accept the deanship if the sessions are changed from evening to the daytime."
Therefore, at a subsequent meeting held on May 12, 1891, the Board of Trustees went on record to change the College sessions from night to day classes, to be held six afternoons a week. (see Appendix V, Document G)
Now for the first time attendance was compulsory, and it was suggested that the professors take the roll and make their report to the Board of Trustees.
Tuition was fixed at $65 a year, which included a course in Chemistry, Materia Medica and Botany, Pharmacy, Laboratory Practice and Microscopy. The course in Microscopy was new, and Professor Gustave Guttenberg, of the Central High School, was engaged to teach it. Because of the death of Professor Blanck, Louis Emanuel was elected as Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, with full charge of the chemical laboratory.
The following was adopted by the Board of Trustees and spread upon the minutes:
Whereas, By the will of Divine Providence the useful life of our Professor of Chemistry, Dr. Hugo Blanck, has terminated in death, we, the members of the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy, deem it our duty to express our personal sense of loss sustained by the College, in which he labored so faithfully for so many years. To his integrity, erudition, and tireless activity, the institution owes much of its success. In his death, his pupils lose a steadfast friend and adviser.
Professor Louis Emanuel resigned December 13, 1892, because of ill health, and because the work connected with the chair of chemistry required too much time and effort, and Dr. Frederick T. Aschman was elected January 3, 1893, to take his place. Upon assuming the chair, Dr. Aschman made inquiry as to the use of the laboratory. He was granted the same privileges as the late Professor Blanck: he retained two-thirds of the tuition he collected, and assumed all expenses, such as gas, chemicals, etc., and agreed to replace any articles which were broken. Today such an arrangement would be unthinkable and be considered unprofessional.
It was through the liberality of Messrs. Samuel S. Holland, William G. Schirmer, and Richard Mierzwa that two volumes on Medicinal Plants by Millspaugh were added to the library at this time.
The Board of Trustees now decided that instead of yearly appointments, the faculty should be elected and, unless for some special reason, they should be retained until a vacancy would occur, thus eliminating yearly elections. With the increase in the number of students taking laboratory courses, an assistant in the laboratory was necessary. However, Dr. Koch was informed that he was permitted to have one, provided he did not add any extra expense to the College.
Crude ground drugs were needed for several courses. Mr. James B. Cherry solicited and received for the College a large lot from Messrs. Gilpin Langdon & Co., Baltimore, Md. Dr. Alfred Stengel also contributed specimens of drug plants reputed to be especially fine.
Additional books for the library were provided through the good auspices of Congressman DaIzell. Birds of Pennsylvania was presented by Representative Alfred Marland. Upon the suggestion of Professor Koenig, a complete set of United States Pharmacopoeias were acquired by exchange.
By donations from many friends and careful planning on the part of the Board and Faculty, the College was able to keep going forward. In 1894, it was decided to increase the term by 10 per cent of the number of lectures given. This was another advance.
Up to now there had been replacements on the Board of Trustees, but at this time it was deemed necessary to have some regularity about this procedure. At a meeting of the members of the College Corporation held on April II, 1893, a whole new Board of Trustees was elected to serve for definite terms. Eleven names were proposed and the six who received the smallest number of votes were elected for six months and the other five were elected to serve for one year. Those elected for the year beginning March 1893 were as follows:
|One Year||Six Months|
|Joseph F. Neely||Perry M. Gleim|
|Louis Brehm||John Beck|
|Emil Schaefer||Fred W. Eggers|
|C. H. Beach||Fred H. Eggers|
|E. N. Gillespie||Morris Einstein|
|William G. Minnick|
Then, at a meeting held on March 26, 1894, it was suggested that the bylaws be changed so that the Trustees would be elected for two years, instead of one year. Five were to be elected on the last Monday in March to serve for two years, and six in March the following year to serve for two years.
Due to the gradual increase in enrollment, the question again arose regarding more commodious quarters for the College. At a meeting of the College Corporation held September 1893, Mr. Emil A. Schaefer proposed that a committee be appointed to acquire a building site. This committee, consisting of Louis Emanuel, Joseph F. Neely, Julius A. Koch, Emil A. Schaefer, chairman, and A. C. Robertson, president of the Corporation, reported at a special meeting, held November 14, 1893, that sixteen different places were available. Therefore, the quarters in the Schmertz Building were not released.
Of interest is the fact that a firm of surveyors and real estate men, Evans and Reese, had offices in the Schmertz Building. Mr. Reese was much interested in the College and spent a great deal of time in the laboratories watching the students at work. It was at Mr. Reese's suggestion that anold mansion at the corner of Pride and Bluff Streets was investigated. At a special meeting of the Trustees held Februar 1, 1895, Professor Koch reported "since the last meeting the committee has received a proposition from the owners of the property situated at Pride, Bluff, and Vicroy Streets," After negotiations were completed the building at Pride and Bluff Streets was leased, beginning April 1, 1895, with an option of buying the property within three years. Necessary improvements in the structure were made and the classes of the fall session of 1895 were held in the new quarters. The building was subsequently purchased.
At a meeting held November 12, 1900, Dr. Koch reported that, "The laboratory facilities were inadequate to the present needs of the classes and urged that larger and better facilities be arranged for in the near future."
This suggestion resulted in two substantially built additions which were in use until the College moved into its recent new building. Alterations in the various rooms and laboratories have been made from time to time as the need became apparent. The purchase of the new quarters, with the additions, was due in a great measure to the help and donations from time to time of the College's many friends.
The natural consequence resulting from the proposition to purchase a building was the discussion of plans to raise money for the purpose. In connection with this plan it is reported in the minutes of a meeting held February 12, 1895, that The W. J. Gilmore Drug Co. donated a sum of one thousand ($1,000) dollars toward the new building. Dean Koch was appointed chairman of a committee to obtain subscribers. The success of this drive is evident in the list of subscribers which appeared in printed form under date of June 1, 1895. (see Appendix V, Document H)
In March 1895, Dr. Koch was appointed as a member from the College to a committee of the American Pharmaceutical Association, whose function it was to report on the graduation requirements to the Association. This reveals Dr. Koch's deep interest in pharmaceutical education at the national level.
Curricular changes now came about. Latin was added to the curriculum on May 14, 1895, Professor Skalweit was engaged to give ten lectures. A series of lectures in pharmaceutical law was also given by Professor Thomas Stephen Brown.
A tuition increase in view of the aforementioned was imminent and on May 14, 1895, tuition was advanced to $75 a term.
Barely settled in their new quarters, this group of forward-looking men felt that it would be advantageous for the College to become a department of the Western University of Pennsylvania. A committee, consisting of Dean Koch and Messrs. Ihrig and Robertson, was appointed to contact Dr. William S. Holland, then chancellor of the University. No immediate action resulted from this visit other than that the committee was requested to furnish all the details of the College to be incorporated into the prospectus of the University. This step eventually resulted in an affiliation of the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy with the Western University of Pennsylvania, and on April 16, 1896 the College became the Department of Pharmacy of the Western University of Pennsylvania. (see Appendix V, Document I)
Emil A. Schaefer was elected as the representative from The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy Board to the Western University of Pennsylvania Board of Trustees.
Now having ample room, the Board of Trustees of the College agreed on April 14, 1896, to offer a third-year term.
The following is the report of the committee on third-year term:
The Committee recommends that the present degree of Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.) be retained for a two-year course, substantially the same as heretofore or so modified as the Faculty may deem proper. In addition to this it is recommended that an additional degree of Doctor of Pharmacy (P.D.) be given to those who shall complete a third-year of study and pass an examination, such as may he arranged by the Faculty and Examining Committee. This degree to be given only to those who shall be Graduates in Pharmacy of this or any other reputable College, after the candidate shall fulfill the conditions above mentioned.
It is further recommended that a degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist be offered to those completing the three years' course, but who have not had the required experience for the Ph.G. or P.D. degrees. At least the third year of this course of study, leading to this degree, must have been taken at this College.
It is also recommended that a degree of Master in Pharmacy (Ph.M.) be offered to those who, being graduates of this College, have for five years after graduation continued in actual practice of their profession and shall present to the Board of the College a suitable thesis or dissertation on original research satisfactory to the Faculty and Examining Committee.
/s/ F. T. Aschman
/s/ Adolph Koenig
/s/ Louis Emanuel
The Board of Trustees, on June 9, 1896, approved plans for the College to have an exhibit at the meeting of the Medical Society, to be held in Pittsburgh in May 1897.
At this time it became necessary to pay the salaries of the Faculty in four month notes. These notes were to be made out for the amount due or such amount as the individual might require at the time. Thus we see the early Faculty were deeply interested and unselfish and gave not only of their abilities but also helped financially.
Unfortunately at this critical time Professor Guttenberg died. He had been a very faithful and tireless faculty member. William J. Mc-Adams was elected to the chair of Professor of Microscopy at a special meeting of the Board held September 28, 1896.
Changes were now more gradual for a time. Dean Koch was instrumental in getting additional seats for the classrooms. The senior class of 1900 equipped a reading room for the students. A room on the fourth floor was fitted up for the comfort and privacy of the women students. Additional donations of crude drugs were made by Lehn & Fink; Parke, Davis & Co. gave a collection of fluid extracts; and Miss Lyra B. Haven (1899) donated eleven books on pharmacy. Another change of importance was the increase in the tuition rate from $75 to $85 per term, beginning on October 3, 1899.
Professor Richard A. Skalweit, who had taught Latin since 1895, took a leave of absence because of poor health and he was instructed to select someone to replace him. He recommended Professor Gundlach, who taught just a short time, in fact, only until November, 1900, when Rev. S. S. Poppoff replaced him in December of the same year.
The curriculum was in need of further expansion and improvement. A chair of Applied Pharmacy was created, with Professor James H. Beal at the head. Professor Frederick T. Aschman was appointed Professor of Inorganic Chemistry and Director of the Analytical laboratory. Professor Julius A. Koch was appointed Professor of Organic Chemistry and Professor of Theoretical Pharmacy on November 3, 1903. The Chair of Microscopy was changed to the Chair of Microscopy and Pharmacognosy.
On April 30, 1901, the office of Dean of the faculty was abolished and the offices of chairman and secretary of the faculty were created. Dr. James H. Beal and Dr. Julius A. Koch were elected to these offices. These two men worked hand in hand for the advancement of the College educationally and for the improvement of the physical plant. Dr. Beal also taught at the Dental School, holding the Chair of Professor of Chemistry, Metallurgy and Microscopy. The office of Dean was re-established in 1903 and Dr. Julius A. Koch was again made Dean.
The faculty was designated by the Board of Trustees to promote better public and professional relations and to compile a complete list of alumni.
Early in May, 1900, a group of Delegates (3 from each college or school of Pharmacy) met in Richmond, at which time the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties was organized.
The preliminary work prior to the organization of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties is not recorded officially. Dr. Koch and Dr. Deal and others had many preliminary discussions, but it was just prior to the 1894 American Pharmaceutical Association meeting that Dr. Deal prepared a circular letter and George B. Kauffman joined in signing it. The letter invited a number of colleges to meet in conference at Asheville. These men were ahead of their time and it was not until May 8, 1900, at Richmond, Virginia, that the preliminary organization of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties took place. This meeting was called by Henry P. Hynson, secretary of the Maryland College of Pharmacy." The American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties guided the activities of the Colleges of Pharmacy nationally until this organization was succeeded by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (1925).
Dr. Koch, Dr. Aschman, and Mr. Sutter attended as representatives from The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy. The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy again was among the leaders in planning advancement for the betterment of our field. The College was a charter member of this group and was active in its programs.
These men also attended the 1900 United States Pharmacopoeia Convention, and also made suggestions for the revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia. (see Appendix V, Document J)
To promote a better understanding of large plant production, Parke, Davis & Co. extended an invitation to the student body and faculty to visit their plant at Detroit, Michigan, on March 4, 1902. These visitations have been made yearly since, with the exception of the war years. Similar trips have also been made for many years to Eli Lilly and Company in Indianapolis. Later the Abbott Laboratories in North Chicago were also visited.
The faculty then remained much the same until Dr. Adolph Koenig resigned the teaching of Botany and Materia Medica. In April, 1905, he was made Emeritus Professor of Botany and Materia Medica, and assistant in chemical laboratory. Dr. Frederick T. Aschman was relieved of work of the Junior Class and was elected Professor of Chemistry. Mr. A. Roy Lanning was appointed general assistant and Professor of Latin. Dr. Julius A. Koch was made Professor of Physics and Chemistry.
The committee on curriculum had decided to add Pharmacognosy and Bacteriology during the Senior year. Dr. William J. McAdams was elected to this Chair with Mr. Frederick J. Blumenschein as his assistant.
The next step for improvement of standards was to change the entrance requirements. On December 5, 1905, the Board of Trustees voted that all applicants must have had at least one year in a high school or its equivalent and that each applicant must be seventeen years of age.
At a meeting of the Board of Directors on August 7, 1906, Louis Saalbach was elected Professor of Pharmacy; Herman S. Kossler, instructor in Pharmaceutical Arithmetic; and Peter G. Walter, Professor of Latin.
It was at the insistence of Dr. Koch that a request was made of the State Department of Education to appoint a local examiner to pass upon the eligibility of applicants to the College. The Superintendent of Education appointed City Superintendent Samuel Andrews to conduct the preliminary examination of matriculants.
No doubt because The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy had one year of high school as a prerequisite, Dr. James H. Beal and Dr. Julius A. Koch were appointed by Mr. Mason as members of a committee to prepare a draft of a "Pre-Requisite Law" to be presented at the American Pharmaceutical Association meeting in Atlantic City in 1905. In this way their influence brought about a national acceptance of a regulation requiring one year of high school for admission to a school of pharmacy.
The idea of a post-graduate course was promoted by Dr. William J. McAdams as early as July 10, 1906.
The need for a larger library was recognized and Mr. James B. Cherry donated his library of 65 bound volumes to the College as an aid to this project.
On May 7, 1907, it was announced that there would be a series of lectures on commercial topics by experienced active druggists. The following assignments were made in providing this additional lecture course: Edward J. Kretz: "How to Buy Right"; Richard Mierzwa: "Financial Methods"; John R. Thompson: "Commercialism"; Louis Emanuel: "Ethics"; Benjamin E. Pritchard: "Associations."
In March, 1905, the Dental School of the Western University of Pennsylvania moved into quarters at Pride and Bluff Streets, after changes were made to accommodate our colleagues. Dr. James H. Beal's connections with the Dental faculty undoubtedly had a great deal to do with their decision to share the quarters of the Pharmacy School. (see Appendix V, Document K) The two institutions worked in harmony until the quarters became too crowded for both professions. Consequently, the Dental School moved to the University campus on September 5, 1911, though they still used one lecture room in the pharmacy building. The annual Dental State Board examinations were held in the pharmacy building for many years.
At the commencement exercises held in the spring of 1905, Mr. J. Homer Smith, a member of the class, gave an inspiring valedictory address in which he stressed the value of an education in Pharmacy.
The commencements of the School of Pharmacy and of the other departments of the University were not held at the same time and for the most part those of Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy were held in the Carnegie Music Hall, Allegheny City. The degrees were conferred by the President of the Corporation. However, after the College became affiliated with the University, the Chancellor conferred the degrees at all commencement exercises. Chancellor Samuel B. McCormick conferred the degrees on our graduates for the first time at the1907 exercises.
On June 9, 1908, Dr. Koch presented to our Board of Directors a plan for the purchase of the Scio College of Pharmacy, located at Scio, Ohio, and the consolidation of the two institutions. The committee empowered to act on this matter with Dr. Julius Koch was Dr. Louis Emanuel, Messrs. Richard Mierzwa, John R. Thompson, and George W. Kutscher. The two colleges were subsequently merged (1908) and the students of Scio were admitted to the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy. The Alumni of Scio College of Pharmacy were adopted as Alumni of Pittsburgh. Dr. James H. Beal, Dean of Scio, came to The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy as Vice-Dean and to teach pharmacy. At this time the James H. Beal Scholarship was established. (see Appendix V, Document L)
During the school year beginning with the fall session of 1908, Messrs. John Coleman, of Wheeling, West Virginia; Lucius L. Walton, of Williamsport, Pennsylvania; L. C. Hopp, of Cleveland, Ohio; and Richard Mierzwa and Benjamin E. Pritchard, of Pittsburgh, gave a series of lectures and papers to the members of the Senior Class to acquaint them with some of the many problems connected with operating one's own business.
The Corporation members were interested not only in the College, but also wanted all pharmacists to have the advantages of a professional organization. Dr. Julius A. Koch undertook to affect such organization and on January 28, 1909, the first meeting was held at the College of Pharmacy. On that day and at the place stated the Pittsburgh Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association held its first meeting and organized with a charter membership of thirty-four (34). The Pittsburgh Branch has since been continuously active with the exception of short periods of time during war years.
At a date as early as December 1, 1908, a committee of three, namely, Drs. Julius A. Koch, James H. Beal, and Professor Louis Emanuel was appointed by the Board of Trustees to discuss the advisability of establishing a three-year course of instruction for undergraduates. Nothing definite was done at this time.
The State Pharmaceutical Examining Board of Pennsylvania on January 25, 1909 issued the following regulations to the twenty-six (26) schools of pharmacy recognized by that Board:
All applicants for certificates as registered pharmacists graduating from schools of pharmacy recognized by this board, and graduating after July 1 1909, must furnish satisfactory evidence of having received at least 1100 hours of instruction in one or more of these recognized schools, 600 hours of which must be laboratory instruction.
/s/ Charles T. George, Secretary
Each school was required to furnish a sworn statement of hours instruction in lectures, laboratory and quiz courses. The schedule at Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy consisted of hours devoted to lecture, 9 A.M. to 12 P.M. and 1 P.M. to 2 P.M., with laboratories from 2 PM. to 6 PM. five days a week and on Saturdays 9:15 AM. to 1:15 P.M. The report revealed that the total number of hours of instruction at the College were in excess of those required. It was also necessary to certify to the State Board that accurate records of attendance were kept in both laboratory and lecture classes. This information was promptly supplied.
The Board of Trustees, on February 1, 1910, adopted the report of its committee on grades and promotions which recommended that for graduation a student must make an average of 75 per cent in all branches; and also on March 10, 1910, that:
all candidates for the degree of Ph.G. who have completed the course of study leading to the degree as specified in the catalogue, but who have not had four years' practical experience in a retail drug store, shall be admitted to all final examinations, and in case they shall successfully pass such examinations, shall receive a Certificate of Proficiency signed by the Dean and certifying to the facts aforesaid.
If at any subsequent period the holder of a Certificate of Proficiency shall present to the dean satisfactory evidence of having his four years of practical experience in the retail drug business and shall comply with all other rules and requirements of the college at that time in force, he shall at the next regular commencement be granted, in exchange for such Certificate of proficiency, the regular diploma and the degree of graduate in pharmacy shall conferred upon him.
The College not only sent Drs. Julius A. Koch, James H. Beal and Louis Saalbach as delegates to the Pharmacopoeial Convention, but also made an effort to have the convention recognize the Western Pennsylvania Retail Druggists' Association, Inc. The Board of Trustees of the United States Pharmacopoeial Convention did not look upon this with favor. (see details Appendix V, Document M)
At the 1910 United States Pharmacopoeial Convention, The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy was honored by having two of its members chosen to fill important positions. Dr. James H. Beal was made Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Dr. Julius A. Koch was made a member of the Revision Committee.
During the summer of 1910 the College met with a disappointment and a loss by death. Thomas Stephen Brown, who had been giving lectures in Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence, resigned because his business took up his time and it was not possible for him to continue to lecture at the College. The College also suffered a profound loss in the death of Dr. William J. McAdams. Dr. Leasure K. Darbaker was elected to succeed him.
Shortly thereafter Dr. Julius A. Koch reported that arrangements had been made with the Medical Department of the University of Pittsburgh to utilize a part of the chemical laboratory for the instruction of medical students. They supplied their own lockers, equipment, and chemicals, but paid the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy a rental for the space. Dr. Koch reported "that all chemical instruction in every department of the University of Pittsburgh, except in the collegiate and engineering courses, was being given in the laboratory of the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy." This arrangement was to be for only one year.
A closer cooperation between the University and the College of Pharmacy was in a continuous process of development. The graduation exercises of 1911 were arranged to be held with the other departments of the University at the regular commencement. Since this time the College of Pharmacy has always participated in University commencements. Dr. James H. Beal announced that he had been elected Editor of the Journal and General Secretary of the American Pharmaceutical Association and therefore, resigned his position as Professor Theory and Practice of Pharmacy. Not wanting to lose his services, the Board elected him to the Chair of Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence.
Dr. Louis Saalbach was elected to the Chair of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy and John H. Wurdack was appointed to assist Dr. Koch, who now took over some of Dr. Beal's duties as Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy.
At a meeting of the Board of Trustees held September 5, 191I, Dr. Koch moved "that a rearrangement of the faculty be made so that the members be placed on a salary basis, in lieu of, as heretofore, on per student and per hour basis." The motion was amended that a committee of five be appointed to confer upon the adjustment of salaries. The motion was amended and passed. After a short recess a salary scale was also adopted.
At the same meeting it was also reported that the Dental School was leaving the Pharmacy building, but wanted permission to use one lecture room, which was granted.
Emil A. Schaefer, on November 7, 191I, resigned as the College of Pharmacy representative on the Board of Trustees of the University and John C. Wallace was elected as his successor.
Dr. Adolph Koenig, too, tendered his resignation, because he had become an Examiner of the Medical State Board. He had taught in the College for 25 years and his resignation from the Chair of Physiology was accepted with great regret. Dr. Frederick A. Rhodes was appointed to succeed him.
The increase in the number of faculty and in the number of teaching hours could not be accomplished without additional revenue. Therefore, all new students after March 4, 1913, were required to pay a matriculation fee of $5.00. If tuition was not paid in one payment by October 15, there had to be two payments of $55 each.
The College of Pharmacy had representation in the deliberations of the International Pharmaceutical Congress in the person of Dr. Julius A. Koch. He, with Dr. Joseph P. Remington of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, were the American Representatives to this Congress held at the Hague in 1913
In October of this same year the May Drug Co. subscribed a sum sufficient to provide two scholarships each year for five years. These scholarships were kept in force for many years. In fact, in February 1922, Mr. Barney May made a bequest of $2,500, the principal and interest thereon to be used in approximately ten equal installments for two scholarships in the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy for ten years.
In 1914 Eli Lilly & Company, through their representative, Mr. G. M. Campbell, donated to the College a handsome and complete collection of crude drugs, which was placed on display in the main hall. Each jar contained the name of the drug, its definition, habitat, etc. This collection was used by the students for many years. H. K. Mulford also, in 1914 through their representative, a Mr. White, presented the College with a complete collection of their biological products, with accompanying literature. This collection was placed in the bacteriological laboratory, where it was also available to all students.
The Board of Trustees, at a meeting held June 1, 1915, unanimously approved the action that "Beginning with the 1916 term, requirement for admission to the regular college course leading to the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy shall be an education equivalent to the completion of the second year's instruction in an approved high school or academy." Thus slowly the entrance requirements were being raised.
Dean Koch, on November 9, 1915, offered the following resolution to the Board of Directors: "Resolved that the Board of Directors approving of the standards agreed upon by the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties directs that these be put in force by our college." This resolution was unanimously adopted.
On September 13, 1915, a request came from our friend, Dr. Adolph Koenig, that because the state appropriation had been so greatly reduced as to make the furnishing of medicine impossible, that the College of Pharmacy supply such medicines as may be required in the Tuberculosis Free Dispensary. It was decided that we would participate.
It is a pleasure to mention that a course of lectures was given to the students of the College through the courtesy of Parke, Davis & Co., by their representative, William J. Bryan, M.D. The lectures embraced such subjects as Immunity, Serum, Therapy, Vaccination, Sero-Bacterins and Opsonins, and also that Mr. W. T. Gwyer had delivered a lecture on "Twenty Years Experience in Building a Retail Business."
Another change in the application procedure was made at this time (1916), when it was made mandatory that any student applying for admission to the College of Pharmacy must hereafter present evidence of endorsement or recommendation by not less than two responsible persons as to his moral fitness and other qualifications to become a pharmacist. This requirement is in force to the present time.
In the fall of 1917, tuition was raised to $150, to be paid in two payments of $75 each.
The Edmunds Bill, having as its objective the raising of "An Army Pharmaceutical Corps," came up just at this time. The Board of Directors of The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy wrote letters to the members in the House of Representatives of the United States, asking that this bill be given their full support. Rep. Stephen G. Porter, a graduate in the pharmacy class of 1891, Guy E. Campbell, Mahlon M. Garland, and M. Clyde Kelly each answered and assured us that he would lend his support and vote for the passage of the bill. Dr. Koch went to Washington as our representative at the hearing on the bill. Unfortunately, this bill was never passed. (see Appendix V, Document N)
Upon entrance of the United States into World War I, students were drafted or inducted into the armed services. The University having adopted compulsory military training for all students, Dr. Julius A. Koch recommended that a place be fixed in the curriculum of The College of Pharmacy for forty-five minutes of military drill each day except Saturday and that the same period be utilized by women students for lectures in Red Cross work and First Aid practice. Approximately 168 students entered the services, twenty-eight of whom went to Officers Training Camp. The Pharmacy School was represented by a number of students in Base Hospital No. 27, American Expeditionary Force. All students who enrolled in the fall of 1918 were eligible for Students Army Training Corps, subject to military authority and required to live in barracks.
Early in 1919 attention was directed to the wording in the 1915 Pennsylvania Pharmacy Act, Section 4, which reads in part "and admits the graduates of all such colleges to licensure examinations." The Board of Directors wrote to Senators Einstein and Snyder that they favored the elimination of the objectionable words referred to and recommended an amendment that would eliminate this feature of the Act. This change was not made at this time.
Dr. Koch, upon his return from a meeting held in Philadelphia early in 1919 with the deans of the other pharmacy schools in the State of Pennsylvania, presented the unanimous conclusion of the group: "That beginning with the classes of 1921 there will be required three years instruction in high school and beginning with the classes of 1923 there will be demanded four years of such instruction previous to matriculation of a student." Needless to say, the Board of Directors of The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy agreed to the recommendation of the conference at Philadelphia by unanimous vote. Consequently, all students admitted in the fall in 1921 had as a prerequisite 3 years of high school work.
Beginning with the 1920-21 term, the tuition was increased to $200 per year.
Dr. John G. Bowman having become Chancellor of the University, a dinner was held in his honor by the Board of Directors and faculty of The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy at the Pittsburgh Athletic Association on February 4, 1921. At a short meeting following this dinner Dr. Koch spoke of the possible affiliation with St. John's General Hospital, on McClure Avenue, North Side, Pittsburgh. Dr. Edward C. Reif, who was and still is a member of the senior staff of that institution, promoted such an affiliation because of the mutual advantages to be gained by each institution.
Shortly after the affiliation with St. John's a new course was added to the curriculum known as "Hospital Technology." The students completing the course received the certificate of Hospital Technician. The first year there were five students in this course. It was offered until it was thought that it would create better professional relations if it were discontinued.
On October 3, 1922, Dr. Koch recommended to the Board of Trustees the appointment of C. Leonard O'Connell to the faculty. He became dean upon the retirement of Dr. Koch in 1932.
At the meeting of the Board of Directors held May 2, 1922, Dr. Koch offered the following resolution:
Resolved - That after this date all applicants for admission to the regular course of instruction must furnish a certificate from the Bureau of Professional Education certifying to the completion of four years of high-school work.
This was unanimously adopted.
The University of Pittsburgh now took over the Pittsburgh Free Dispensary and the College again off area to supply pharmaceuticals until a permanent arrangement could be worked out.
Beginning with the fall term of 1923-24 the tuition was increased to $225 per year.
At the organization meeting of the National Conference on Pharmaceutical Research held in Cleveland on August 12, 1922, the following resolutions were passed:
Resolved: It is the sense of this Research conference that every College of Pharmacy should provide the necessary financial means so that at least one professor, or if that should not be possible, an assistant be appointed to devote his entire time to research.
Resolved: That these resolutions be sent to the trustees of the various colleges of Pharmacy.
/s/ H. V. Arny, Temporary Chairman
After free discussion of the Board of Directors, the secretary of the Board was instructed "to notify Dr. Arny that this Board of Directors concurs in the object sought for in these resolutions.'
Dean Koch reported having attended a meeting of the deans of the colleges in Pennsylvania held for the purpose of discussing the new requirements adopted by the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties with reference to the attitude of the Pennsylvania Board of Pharmacy. The result of this conference was the adoption of 1,500 hours for a two-year course, with a minimum of 30 weeks to constitute a college year. It was further adopted that a three-year course should be in force in the fall of 1925. This action was taken to conform to no. 4 of article VI of the By-Laws the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties, as reported in their proceedings of 1922.
At a subsequent meeting held in April 1924, the Board of Directors approved a motion "that the course for graduate in pharmacy for those students registering for the term beginning with 1925 shall be three years.
It was indeed gratifying at this time to get a communication from Lehn & Fink, a wholesale drug firm in New York, offering to give a gold medal each year, to be awarded to the student having the highest standing in Pharmacy or one who has done some special work in Pharmacy deserving of recognition. This offer was accepted by the Board of Directors; it is still an incentive to ambitious students in the School of Pharmacy. (see Appendix V, Document P)
With Mr. Robert R. Gaw as chairman of the Pharmacy Division of the University of Pittsburgh Alumni Association, the alumni actively participated in the campaign to raise money to erect the "Cathedral of Learning." The alumni understood that the College of Pharmacy would be housed in this building. The zoning commission, however, did not permit chemical laboratories in this building; therefore, the College of Pharmacy was not given quarters in this structure. However, the College actively participated in the campaign and all money which was collected and any which had previously been obtained was held in escrow until the building of our present quarters ion the campus. Needless to say such funds were gladly given to assist in this project.
In 1924 a detailed and comprehensive study, by a committee of experts, of pharmacy as a profession as well as a business, revealed the educational background required of a pharmacist, as well as the added necessity of business ability. This study was made by an advisory committee operating on funds provided by the Commonwealth Fund, to be used in the study of educational problems. After a study of vocational courses it was determined to apply the methods evolved in this work in the study of a profession. Since pharmacy offered the best foothold, it was selected.
Very shortly thereafter, the Commonwealth investigation of Pharmacy began. Dr. Julius A. Koch was made the Chairman of the Advisory Committee on the Pharmaceutical Curriculum. Practically every member of the staff of The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy participated in this investigation: Dr. Louis Saalbach in Compounding and Dispensing; Dr. James H. Beal in Jurisprudence; Dr. Frederick J. Blumenschein and Dr. C. Leonard O'Connell in Public Health Study. Dr. Edward C. Reif, Dr. Albert F. Judd, Dr. John H. Wurdack, Dr. Leasure K. Darbaker, Messrs. David Levin, I. Paul Griggs, Carl Wirts, William D. Wardlaw, Miss Genevieve Hines, Miss Besse Swartz; Dr. Louis Emanuel and Mr. Carl Saalbach surveyed 100 stores in the Pittsburgh area. After a careful and open-minded survey, which took two years, the director reported that he was convinced that pharmacy is a profession. Dr. Charters published his findings in a volume, "Basic Materials for a Pharmaceutical Curriculum."
Dr. Koch, in his presidential address as President of the American Pharmaceutical Association, at the meeting held in Asheville, North Carolina in 1922, recommended that the association become a member of the Federation Internationale Pharmaceutique and that a permanent delegation be appointed to represent the American -Pharmaceutical Association in the Federation. His recommendation was approved, and the first delegation consisted of Professor Julius A. Koch, Pittsburgh; Professor E. Fullerton Cook, Philadelphia; and Professor Wilbur F. Scoville, Detroit. Membership in this association has been maintained ever since. The various members of the delegation, appointed from time to time, have had an influence on the promotion of an International Pharmacopoeia. The first edition was published in 1951.
Dr. James H. Beal acted as Chairman of the Pharmacy Headquarters Building Committee, a committee, national in scope, organized for the purpose of constructing, equipping, and maintaining a headquarters building for American pharmacy. The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy faculty contributed $1,000, and the student body $1,700. This building is now a reality and stands at 2215 Constitution Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C.: a busy place visited daily by pharmacists from all parts of the United States and from abroad.
On May 5, 1924, Dr. Louis Emanuel was elected to the Board of Trustees of the University to succeed Dr. John C. Wallace as the pharmacy representative on that board. The faculty at this time began to lay plans for a definite course in what was then termed Commercial Pharmacy. Dr. C. Leonard O'Connell was placed in charge of this program. This course now is a department in the pharmacy curriculum and is called Pharmacy Administration.
It was indeed a wonderful day when Mr. John R. Thompson, on behalf of Mr. George A. Kelly, presented a copy of "The Wurtenberg Pharmacopoeia" of 1750 to the College. It is one of the treasures of the Maurice & Laura Falk Library.
In December 1927, Dr. Leasure K. Darbaker presented to the Corporation a detailed plan to develop a drug plant garden in Schenley Park. Mr. F. W. McCulloch was requested to contact Council. Dean Koch directed Dr. Darbaker to see Mr. Moore, Superintendent of Schenley Park, and Mr. Smith, who was in charge of the conservatory, about a plot. This venture was realized. However, in 1947 it became a project of the Hilltop Garden Club.
Botanical excursions also began that year to various parts of the community to observe plants of medicinal importance growing in their natural habitat. This practice is still part of the Pharmacy College curriculum.
The colleges and schools of pharmacy and the state boards of pharmacy of the United States are divided into eight districts for the regional study of problems which affect the colleges, schools and state boards nationally. These district meetings are held between the annual national meetings of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy.
District No. 2, which embraces the colleges and schools of pharmacy of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, and the Boards of Pharmacy from the same states, met in Baltimore in 1928, and Dr. Louis Saalbach was appointed as District Chairman for the Colleges. The first time District No. 2 met in Pittsburgh was in 1950, when Dean Edward C. Reif was chairman for the Colleges.
Since 1928 was the year of our fiftieth anniversary, it was first thought that there should be a celebration. A decision was made to defer such a celebration until suitable quarters for the school on the campus was an assured fact. Instead, a banquet was tendered to the graduating class, faculty, and members of the College Corporation on May 28, 1928, at Webster Hall. Dr. C. Leonard O'Connell was chairman of the committee on arrangements. The program was centered around the history of the school. Dr. O'Connell was toastmaster on this occasion and introduced the following speakers:
Founding of the College --- Dr. Louis Emanuel
Pharmacy in the Early 80's --- Dean Julius A. Koch (1884)
Reminiscences --- Dr. Adolph Koenig
Pharmacy in the Early 90’s --- Dr. Louis Saalhach (1895)
20th Century Pharmacy --- Dr. John H. Wurdack (1909)
Pharmacy Today --- Mr. Bernard F. Dauhert (1925)
Pharmacy of Tomorrow --- Mr. Arthur W. Davis (1928)
Things We Tie To --- Chancellor John G. Bowman
One hundred and eighty-five persons attended the banquet.
This event was so well received that at the October meeting of the Board of Directors a committee was appointed, with Dr. C. Leonard O'Connell as Chairman, to consider the advisability of making the dinner to the Senior Class an annual affair. In December Doctor O'Connell presented the following report:
The committee appointed to determine upon the advisability of making the dinner to the Graduating Class an annual institution has decided that the favorable reaction to the affair of last May well warrants its continuance and so recommends.
/s/ C. Leonard O'Connell, CH.
The report was accepted and adopted.
This has become a tradition. The affair is now held in connection with the annual alumni banquet, which is part of the commencement week exercises. However, it is of interest to note that the first annual banquet given by a graduating class (1894-95) was held at the Monongahela House on Thursday, April 18, 1895.
In this same year (1928), a pharmacy student, Robert W. Taylor, was among the last eliminated in the choice for the "Ideal University Students," elected annually to receive the George Wharton Pepper Award. This award is no longer made.
At the meeting of the Board of Directors held June 1928, it was decided that a delegate should be appointed annually to represent the College at the yearly convention of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. Dr. C. Leonard O'Connell was appointed as the first official delegate.
Another very delightful school affair was initiated in the fall of 1928, which was in the nature of a reception to the parents of the freshmen students. This was the outcome of a suggestion made by Dr. C. Leonard O'Connell at a faculty meeting, from which it was in turn transmitted to the Board of Directors. The first affair was held at Webster Hall, November 27, from 8:30 to 11 o'clock. Two hundred and four persons attended. Because it was felt that there was need for this very close contact of faculty and parents, the idea of a freshmen reception was continued. However, today, our reception is a part of the Chancellor's Reception to the parents of the freshmen, which is held each fall.
In April, 1929, Dr. Julius A. Koch was appointed the official representative of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to inspect the schools of pharmacy of the Chicago College of Pharmacy, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin. He fulfilled this assignment.
Edward Spease in his presidential address, delivered at the twenty-ninth annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy held in Portland, Maine, August 1928, recommended that "Article VI, By-Law 4 be amended so as to provide for a minimum four-year course in Pharmacy. This was to be effective not later than 1930." The committee on resolutions recommended the adoption of this resolution, which was subsequently approved.